In its initial package of support for businesses affected by restrictions imposed in response to the coronavirus, the Government restricted landlords' right to forfeit commercial leases for non-payment of rent. When rent payable on the March 2020 quarter day went unpaid, some landlords responded by taking other steps, such as serving statutory demands and commencing winding up proceedings against tenants.

In April 2020, the Government first introduced temporary measures to restrict the use of Commercial Rent Arrears Recovery ("CRAR") during the pandemic. Those measures (extended several times already) have recently been extended further to allow tenants more breathing space.

What is CRAR?

In summary, CRAR is a process allowing landlords to appoint registered agents to enter tenants' premises, take control of goods and sell them to pay off arrears. It replaced the old remedy of distress. CRAR can only be used in relation to written leases of commercial premises. It has not seen great uptake since its introduction in 2014. CRAR has equally not been especially popular since the outbreak of coronavirus: it requires the registered agent to physically attend the premises and is usually only exercised when the tenant's business is open for trade. In the absence of forfeiture or serving statutory demands, though, it was one of the obvious next steps for landlords, particularly outside of lockdown restrictions.

What has changed?

The most significant change is to the minimum arrears necessary before CRAR can be initiated. Prior to coronavirus, landlords could initiate CRAR where the tenant was in arrears equalling at least 7 days' rent (i.e. principal rent, not service charges or other sums defined as rent under the lease). The most recent changes mean that until 25 March 2022, for actions commenced after 24 June 2021, CRAR can only be used if there are at least 554 days’ arrears. As it stands, those higher thresholds come to an end on 25 March 2022

If CRAR is exercisable, so long as the tenant brings the arrears below the minimum threshold before the landlord takes control of their goods, the landlord cannot take further action. Tenants will hope that the new changes give them time to get back on their feet as lockdowns ease, but there is still a risk of CRAR coming back into play while tenants' businesses are still recovering.

Enforcing CRAR at residential premises and on roads has also been temporarily restricted. Initiating CRAR usually waives the landlord's right to forfeit. Until 25 March 2022, that is unlikely to apply (but landlords may still take a cautious approach).

What if CRAR had already been initiated?

The changes affect all CRAR action, but different rent thresholds apply depending on when action was commenced.

So where does that leave landlords and tenants?

Landlords can, for now, still bring a debt claim for any arrears, but that is likely to be a slower process than some of the other options that were previously available to them. It may also cost them more and risk adding to their losses. It is important to keep in mind that tenants' obligation to pay rent has not been suspended.

While landlords' options are limited for the time being, the changes are temporary and therefore some landlords, if they can afford to, will decide to bide their time and then pursue arrears when the restrictions have been lifted, or may wait to see what the government’s proposed coronavirus arrears arbitration scheme looks like. That scheme may provide a means for landlords and tenants to resolve arrears disputes before tenants’ protections end on 25 March 2022.

Echoing the government's guidance to landlords and tenants throughout this public health crisis, both should aim for a constructive dialogue and try to arrive at a solution that both can live with. It is clear that the government is loath to allow coronavirus to destroy landlord and tenant relationships, which are a key pillar of economic life. The high street, already knocked to the canvas by changing consumer spending patterns and high business rates, could be out for the count if landlords and tenants are not able to find a path through.

This briefing was first published on 29 April 2020 and updated on 6 July 2020, 18 September 2020, 10 December 2020, 16 March 2021 & 23 July 2021.